Gender Representation in TV Advertising for Children: Children’s perceptions and advertising literacy




gender, stereotype, children, advertising, television, advertising literacy.


Children are becoming consumers at increasingly younger age and are more influential in consumption decisions within the family. Television still is one of the main ways they are exposed to advertising. Our study focuses on gender stereotypes on TV advertisements for children and combines a content analysis of advertisements and focus groups with children between 7 and 12 years old. Our findings show that, during a period of 3 months, about 75% of TV advertisements for children contain gender stereotypes. In addition, children are able to recognize such stereotypes, and in general do not identify or agree with the way each gender is portrayed. Finally, children display good levels of advertising literacy, as they are able to recognize the intentions of the brands in the commercials.


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Biografia do Autor

Patrícia Dias, CECC - Universidade Católica Portuguesa

Patrícia Dias is Assistant Professor of the Faculty of Human Sciences (FCH) at Universidade Católica Portuguesa (UCP), where she coordinates de Post-graduate course Social Brands – Communication and Marketing in the Digital Environment. She is a member of the Executive Board of the Research Centre on Peoples and Cultures (CEPCEP), integrated researcher at the Research Centre for Communication and Culture (CECC), and collaborator at the Católica Research Centre on Psychological, Family and Social Wellbeing (CRC-W). Holding a PhD in Communication Sciences, her research interests are the use of digital media by children and families, mobile communication, digital marketing and communication strategies, and emergent technologies within the scope of the Internet of Things. She is the author of “Smarketing – How Mobile Marketing is changing Portugal” (2020), “Living in the Digital Society” (2014) and “The Mobile Phone and Daily Life” (2008). 

Raquel Tavares, Faculdade de Ciências Humanas, Universidade Católica Portuguesa

Raquel Tavares holds a Master in Communication Sciences – Specialization in Marketing, Communication and Advertising, by Universidade Católica Portuguesa. She participates actively as research assistant in several research projects at the Research Centre for Communication and Culture (CECC), at the same university. 


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Como Citar

Dias, P., & Tavares, R. (2021). Gender Representation in TV Advertising for Children: Children’s perceptions and advertising literacy. Comunicação Mídia E Consumo, 18(53).